Wednesday, 16 April 2014

SBI PO Solved Banking awarenes Question Paper Held On - 28-4-13



SBI PO SOLVED PAPER (Held on 28-4-2013)
- GENERAL AWARENESS, MARKETING & COMPUTER

1. Every year March 20 is celebrated as what day ?
(A) World Sparrow Day
(B) International Women's Day
(C) World Cuckoo Day
(D) International Child Day
(E) International Mother's Day

Ans : (A)
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Wednesday, 2 April 2014

Solved Computer Awareness Question set for banking

  Model Computer Question  set 8  for IBPS for IBPS , RSS  ,Banking ,PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking  related competitive exams.


1. When the pointer is positioned on a _____, it is shaped like a hand.

(A) grammar error
(B) Formatting error
(C) Screen Tip
(D) Spelling error
(E) hyperlink

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Tuesday, 25 March 2014

Solved Computer Awareness Question set for IBPS

Model Computer Awareness Question set for IBPS for IBPS , RSS  ,Banking ,PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking  related competitive exams.


1.If you wish to extend the length of the network without having the signal degrade, you would use a

 (A) resonance
(B) router
(C) gateway
(D) switch
(E) repeater 

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Wednesday, 12 March 2014

Solved Computer Awareness Question Set-6

  Model Computer Awareness Question set 6 for IBPS , RSS Banking PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking related competitive exams.

1. Hackers 
 
(A) all have the same motive
(B) are people who maintain computers
(C) may legally break into computers as long as they do not do any damage
(D) are people who are allergic to computers
(E) break into other people's computers

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Tuesday, 18 February 2014

Solved Computer Awareness Question Set-5

 Model computer awareness question set for IBPS , RSS Banking PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2014/02/solved-computer-awareness-question-set-4.html#sthash.jDxGns3U.dpuf
  Model Computer Awareness Question set for IBPS , RSS Banking PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking related competitive exams.



 Model computer awareness question set for IBPS , RSS Banking PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2014/02/solved-computer-awareness-question-set-4.html#sthash.jDxGns3U.dpuf
 Model computer awareness question set for IBPS , RSS Banking PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2014/02/solved-computer-awareness-question-set-4.html#sthash.jDxGns3U.dpuf
1. Computer uses the _____ number system to store data and perform calculations. 

(A) binary
(B) octal
(C) decimal
(D) hexadecimal
(E) None of these

2. A disk's content that is recorded at the time of manufacture and that cannot be changed or erased by the user is- 

(A) Memory-only
(B) Write-only
(C) Once-only
(D) Run-only
(E) Read-only

3. Which of the following can be used to select the entire document? 

(A) CTRL+A
(B) ALT+F5
(C) SHIFT +A
(D) CTRL+K
(E) CTRL+H

4. _____ are attempts by individuals to obtain confidential information from you by falsifying their identity.

(A) Phishing
(B) Computer viruses
(C) Spyware scams
(D) Viruses
(E) None of the above

5. _____ Part number, part description, and number of parts ordered are examples of- 

(A) control
(B) output
(C) processing
(D) feedback
(E) input

6. A Web site's main page is called its- 

(A) Home Page
(B) Browser Page
(C) Search Page
(D) Bookmark
(E) None of these

7. The simultaneous processing of two or more programs by multiple processors is- 

(A) multiprogramming
(B) multitasking
(C) time-sharing
(D) multiprocessing
(E) None of these

8. Codes consisting of lines of varying widths or lengths that are computer-readable are known as-

(A) an ASCII code
(B) a magnetic tape
(C) an OCR scanner
(D) a bar code
(E) None of these

9. To instruct Word to fit the width of a column to the contents of a table automatically, click the _____ button and then point to AutoFit Contents. 

(A) Fit to Form
(B) Format
(C) Autosize
(D) Contents
(E) AutoFit

10. Why is it unethical to share copyrighted files with your friends? 

(A) It is not unethical, because it is legal.
(B) It is unethical because the files are being given for free.
(C) Sharing copyrighted files without permission breaks copyright laws.
(D) It is not unethical because the files are being given for free.
(E) It is not unethical-anyone can access a computer


ANSWER

1. (A)
2. (E)
3. (A)
4. (A)
5. (E)
6. (A)
7. (D)
8. (D)
9. (E)
10. (C)


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Sunday, 16 February 2014

Solved Computer Awareness Question Set-4

 Model computer awareness question set for IBPS , RSS Banking PO/ clerical  and all kind of Banking related competitive exams.
Bank PO/ clerical , and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2013/12/banking-awareness-question-set-7.html#sthash.a87hLznl.dpuf
Bank PO/ clerical , and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2013/12/banking-awareness-question-set-7.html#sthash.vMZbWDAz.dpuf
Model Banking awareness solved Question set 7 for  IBPS, RSS, Bank PO/ clerical , and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2013/12/banking-awareness-question-set-7.html#sthash.QsG1SLWY.dpuf
Model Banking awareness solved Question set 7 for  IBPS, RSS, Bank PO/ clerical , and all kind of Banking related competitive exams. - See more at: http://www.banking-awareness.com/2013/12/banking-awareness-question-set-7.html#sthash.QsG1SLWY.dpuf

1. When you save to this, your data will remain intact even when the computer is turned off-

   (A) RAM
   (B) Motherboard
   (C) Secondary storage device
   (D) Primary storage device
   (E) None of these

2. A central computer that holds collections of data and programs for many PCs, workstations, and other computers is a (n)- 

  (A) supercomputer
  (B) minicomputer
  (C) laptop
  (D) server
  (E) None of these

3. The _____ folder retains copies of messages that you have started but are not yet ready to send. 

  (A) Drafts
  (B) Outbox
  (C) Address Book
  (D) Sent Items
  (E) Inbox


4. Grouping and processing all of a firm's transactions at one time is called- 

  (A) a database management system
  (B) batch processing
  (C) a real-time system
  (D) an on-line system
  (E) None of these

5. The _____ enables you to simultaneously keep multiple Web pages open in one browser window.
  
   (A) tab box
   (B) pop-up helper
   (C) tab row
   (D) address bar
   (E) Esc key

6. Which ports connect special types of music instruments to sound cards?

   (A) BUS
   (B) CPU
   (C) USB
   (D) MIDI
   (E) MINI

7. You can _____ a search by providing more information the search engine can use to select a smaller, more useful set of results.

   (A) refine
   (B) expand
   (C) load
   (D) query
   (E) slowdown

8. What is the permanent memory built into your computer called?

   (A) RAM
   (B) Floppy
   (C) CPU
   (D) CD-ROM
   (E) ROM

9. What displays the contents of the active cell in Excel? 

   (A) Namebox
   (B) RowHeadings
   (C) Formulabar
   (D) Taskpane
   (E) None of these

10. The piece of hardware that converts your computer's digital signal to an analog signal that can travel over telephone lines is called a- 

   (A) red wire
   (B) blue cord
   (C) tower
   (D) modem
   (E) None of these


Answer

1. (C)
2. (D)
3. (B)
4. (B)
5. (C)
6. (C)
7. (A)
8. (E)
9. (A)
10. (D)

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Thursday, 13 February 2014

Banking Financial Terms For IBPS

Import substitution

A deliberate effort to replace major consumer imports by promoting the emergence and expansion of domestic industries such as textiles, shoes, and household appliances. Import substitution requires the imposition of protective tariffs and quotas to get the new industry started.

Income inequality 

The existence of disproportionate distribution of total national income among households whereby the share going to rich persons in a country is far greater than that going to poorer persons (a situation common to most LDCs). This is largely due to differences in the amount of income derived from ownership of property and to a lesser extent the result of differences in earned income. Inequality of personal incomes can be reduced by progressive income taxes and wealth taxes. This is measured by the Gini coefficient.

Index of industrial production: 

A quantity index that is designed to measure changes in the physical volume or production levels of industrial goods over time.

Inflation 

is the percentage increase in the prices of goods and services.

Indirect tax: 

A tax you do not pay directly, but which is passed on to you by an increase in your expenses. For instance, a company might have to pay a fuel tax. The company pays the tax but can increase the cost of its products so consumers are actually paying the tax indirectly by paying more for the merchandise.

Interdependence Interrelationship 

between economic and noneconomic variables. Also, in international affairs, the situation in which one nation's welfare depends to varying degrees on the decisions and policies of another nation, and vice versa. See also dependence.

International commodity

agreement Formal agreement by sellers of a common internationally traded commodity (coffee, sugar) to coordinate supply to maintain price stability.

International Labor Organization (ILO) 

One of the functional organizations of the United Nations, based in Geneva, Switzerland, whose central task is to look into problems of world labor supply, its training, utilization, domestic and international distribution, etc. Its aim in this endeavor is to increase world output through maximum utilization of available human resources and thus improve levels of living.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

An autonomous international financial institution that originated in the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944. Its main purpose is to regulate the international monetary exchange system, which also stems from that conference but has since been modified. In particular, one of the central tasks of the IMF is to control fluctuations in exchange rates of world currencies in a bid to alleviate severe balance of payments problems.

International poverty line

An arbitrary international real income measure, usually expressed in constant dollars (e.g., $270), used as a basis for estimating the proportion of the world's population that exists at bare levels of subsistence.

Land reform 


A deliberate attempt to reorganize and transform existing agrarian systems with the intention of improving the distribution of agricultural incomes and thus fostering rural development. Among its many forms, land reform may entail provision of secured tenure rights to the individual farmer, transfer of land ownership away from small classes of powerful landowners to tenants who actually till the land, appropriation of land estates for establishing small new settlement farms, or instituting land improvements and irrigation schemes.

Macroeconomic stabilization Policies


designed to eliminate macroeconomic instability.

Macroeconomics:

The branch of economics that considers the relationships among broad economic aggregates such as national income, total volumes of saving, investment, consumption expenditure, employment, and money supply. It is also concerned with determinants of the magnitudes of these aggregates and their rates of change over time.

Market economy: 

A free private-enterprise economy governed by consumer sovereignty, a price system, and the forces of supply and demand.

Market failure: 

A phenomenon that results from the existence of market imperfections (e.g., monopoly power, lack of factor mobility, significant externalities, lack of knowledge) that weaken the functioning of a free-market economy--it fails to realize its theoretical beneficial results. Market failure often provides the justification for government interference with the working of the free market.

Market-friendly approach: 

World Bank notion that successful development policy requires governments to create an environment in which markets can operate efficiently and to intervene selectively in the economy in areas where the market is inefficient (e.g., social and economic infrastructure, investment coordination, economic "safety net").

Market mechanism:

The system whereby prices of stocks & shares, commodities or services freely rise or fall when the buyer's demand for them rises or falls or the seller's supply of them decreases or increases.

Market prices:

Prices established by demand and supply in a free-market economy.

Merchandise exports and imports:

All international changes in ownership of merchandise passing across the customs borders of the trading countries. Exports are valued f.o.b. (free on board). Imports are valued c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight).

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Important Financial Terms

Exports:

The value of all goods and nonfactor services sold to the rest of the world; they include merchandise, freight, insurance, travel, and other nonfactor services. The value of factor services (such as investment receipts and workers' remittances from abroad) is excluded from this measure. See also merchandise exports and imports.

Externalities:

A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services. Often "externality" refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.

Fiscal deficit 


Fiscal deficit is the gap between the government's total spending and the sum of its revenue receipts and non-debt capital receipts. The fiscal deficit represents the total amount of borrowed funds required by the government to completely meet its expenditure

Fiscal policy

Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditure and taxation to try to influence the level of economic activity. An expansionary (or reflationary) fiscal policy could mean: cutting levels of direct or indirect tax increasing government expenditure The effect of these policies would be to encourage more spending and boost the economy. A contractionary (or deflationary) fiscal policy could be: increasing taxation - either direct or indirect cutting government expenditure These policies would reduce the level of demand in the economy and help to reduce inflation

Fixed costs: 

A cost incurred in the general operations of the business that is not directly attributable to the costs of producing goods and services. These "Fixed" or "Indirect" costs of doing business will be incurred whether or not any sales are made during the period, thus the designation "Fixed", as opposed to "Variable".

Fixed exchange rate: 

The exchange value of a national currency fixed in relation to another (usually the U.S. dollar), not free to fluctuate on the international money market.

Foreign aid 

The international transfer of public funds in the form of loans or grants either directly from one government to another (bilateral assistance) or indirectly through the vehicle of a multilateral assistance agency like the World Bank. See also tied aid, private foreign investment, and nongovernmental organizations.

Foreign direct investment (FDI): 

Overseas investments by private multinational corporations.

Foreign exchange reserves:

The stock of liquid assets denominated in foreign currencies held by a government's monetary authorities (typically, the finance ministry or central bank). Reserves enable the monetary authorities to intervene in foreign exchange markets to affect the exchange value of their domestic currency in the market. Reserves are invested in low-risk and liquid assets, often in foreign government securities.

Free trade: 

Free trade in which goods can be imported and exported without any barriers in the forms of tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions. Free trade has often been described as an engine of growth because it encourages countries to specialize in activities in which they have comparative advantages, thereby increasing their respective production efficiencies and hence their total output of goods and services.

Free-trade area

A form of economic integration in which there exists free internal trade among member countries but each member is free to levy different external tariffs against non-member nations.

Free-market exchange rate Rate

determined solely by international supply and demand for domestic currency expressed in terms of, say, U.S. dollars.

Fringe benefit:

A benefit in addition to salary offered to employees such as use of company's car, house, lunch coupons, health care subscriptions etc.

Gains from trade
The addition to output and consumption resulting from specialization in production and free trade with other economic units including persons, regions, or countries.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 

An international body set up in 1947 to probe into the ways and means of reducing tariffs on internationally traded goods and services. Between 1947 and 1962, GATT held seven conferences but met with only moderate success. Its major success was achieved in 1967 during the so-called Kennedy Round of talks when tariffs on primary commodities were drastically slashed and then in 1994 with the signing of the Uruguay Round agreement. Replaced in 1995 by World Trade Organization (WTO).

Global warming Theory 

that world climate is slowly warming as a result of both MDC and LDC industrial and agricultural activities.

Gross domestic product (GDP): 

Gross Domestic Product: The total of goods and services produced by a nation over a given period, usually 1 year. Gross Domestic Product measures the total output from all the resources located in a country, wherever the owners of the resources live.

Gross national product (GNP)

is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Fact book, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well being. GNP equals GDP plus net property income from abroad.
Globalisation or Globalization: The process whereby trade is now being conducted on ever widening geographical boundaries. Countries now trade across continents and companies also trade all over the world.


Human capital Productive investments 


embodied in human persons. These include skills, abilities, ideals, and health resulting from expenditures on education, on-the-job training programs, and medical care.

Imperfect competition: 


A market situation or structure in which producers have some degree of control over the price of their product. Examples include monopoly and oligopoly. See also perfect competition.

Imperfect market 

A market where the theoretical assumptions of perfect competition are violated by the existence of, for example, a small number of buyers and sellers, barriers to entry, nonhomogeneity of products, and incomplete information. The three imperfect markets commonly analyzed in economic theory are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition.

Merchandise trade balance:

Balance on commodity exports and imports.

Microeconomics: 

The branch of economics concerned with individual decision units--firms and households--and the way in which their decisions interact to determine relative prices of goods and factors of production and how much of these will be bought and sold. The market is the central concept in microeconomics.

Middle-income countries (MICs): 

LDCs with per capita income above $785 and below $9,655 in 1997 according to World Bank measures.

Mixed economic systems:

Economic systems that are a mixture of both capitalist and socialist economies. Most developing countries have mixed systems. Their essential feature is the coexistence of substantial private and public activity within a single economy.

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Important Financial Terms For IBPS

Monetary policy: 

The regulation of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank in order to control inflation and stabilize currency. If the economy is heating up, the central bank (such as RBI in India) can withdraw money from the banking system, raise the reserve requirement or raise the discount rate to make it cool down. If growth is slowing, it can reverse the process - increase the money supply, lower the reserve requirement and decrease the discount rate. The monetary policy influences interest rates and money supply.

Money supply: 


the total stock of money in the economy; currency held by the public plus money in accounts in banks. It consists primarily currency in circulation and deposits in savings and checking accounts. Too much money in relation to the output of goods tends to push interest rates down and push inflation up; too little money tends to push rates up and prices down, causing unemployment and idle plant capacity. The central bank manages the money supply by raising and lowering the reserves banks are required to hold and the discount rate at which they can borrow money from the central bank. The central bank also trades government securities (called repurchase agreements) to take money out of the system or put it in. There are various measures of money supply, including M1, M2, M3 and L; these are referred to as monetary aggregates.

Monopoly:

A market situation in which a product that does not have close substitutes is being produced and sold by a single seller. See also monopsony.

Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA)

A set of nontariff bilateral quotas established by developed countries on imports of cotton, wool, and synthetic textiles and clothing from individual LDCs

Multinational corporation (MNC) 

An international or transnational corporation with headquarters in one country but branch offices in a wide range of both developed and developing countries. Examples include General Motors, Coca-Cola, Firestone, Philips, Volkswagen, British Petroleum, Exxon, and ITT. Firms become multinational corporations when they perceive advantages to establishing production and other activities in foreign locations. Firms globalize their activities both to supply their home-country market more cheaply and to serve foreign markets more directly. Keeping foreign activities within the corporate structure lets firms avoid the costs inherent in arm's-length dealings with separate entities while utilizing their own firm-specific knowledge such as advanced production techniques.

National debt:


Treasury bills, notes, bonds, and other debt obligations that constitute the debt owed by the federal government. It represents the accumulation of each year's budget deficit
Public debt: Borrowing by the Government of India internally as well as externally. The total of the nation's debts: debts of local and state and national governments is an indicator of how much public spending is financed by borrowing instead of taxation

Newly industrializing countries (NICs) 

A small group of countries at a relatively advanced level of economic development with a substantial and dynamic industrial sector and with close links to the international trade, finance, and investment system (Argentina, Brazil, Greece, Mexico, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, and Taiwan).

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 

Privately owned and operated organizations involved in providing financial and technical assistance to LDCs. See foreign aid.

Nontariff trade barrier: 

A barrier to free trade that takes a form other than a tariff, such as quotas or sanitary requirements for imported meats and dairy products.


Official development assistance (ODA) 

Net disbursements of loans or grants made on concessional terms by official agencies of member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Official exchange rate:

Rate at which the central bank will buy and sell the domestic currency in terms of a foreign currency such as the U.S. dollar.

An Open economy is an economy that encourages foreign trade and has extensive financial and nonfinancial contacts with the rest of the world in areas such as education, culture, and technology. See also closed economy.
The opportunity cost is the implied cost of not doing something that could have led to higher returns.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD):

An organization of 20 countries from the Western world including all of those in Europe and North America. Its major objective is to assist the economic growth of its member nations by promoting cooperation and technical analysis of national and international economic trends.

Overvalued exchange rate 

An official exchange rate set at a level higher than its real or shadow value--for example, 7 Kenyan shillings per dollar instead of, say, 10 shillings per dollar. Overvalued rates cheapen the real cost of imports while raising the real cost of exports. They often lead to a need for exchange control.


Performance budget

is a budget format that relates the input of resources and the output of services for each organizational unit individually. Sometimes used synonymously with program budget. It is a budget wherein expenditures are based primarily upon measurable performance of activities.

Political economy

The attempt to merge economic analysis with practical politics--to view economic activity in its political context. Much of classical economics was political economy, and today political economy is increasingly being recognized as necessary for any realistic examination of development problems.

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Financing Term for banking Exam


Crowding out: 

The possible tendency for government spending on goods and services to put upward pressure on interest rates, thereby discouraging private investment spending.

Currency appreciation: 

An increase in the value of one currency relative to another currency. Appreciation occurs when, because of a change in exchange rates; a unit of one currency buys more units of another currency. Opposite is the case with currency depreciation.

Currency board: 

Form of central bank that issues domestic currency for foreign exchange at fixed rates.

Currency substitution: 

The use of foreign currency (e.g., U.S. dollars) as a medium of exchange in place of or along with the local currency (e.g., Rupees).

Customs duty: 

Duty levied on the imports of certain goods. Includes excise equivalents Unlike tariffs customs duties are used mainly as a means to raise revenue for the government rather than protecting domestic producers from foreign competition.

Death rate:


numbers of people dying per thousand population.

Deflation: 

Deflation is a reduction in the level of national income and output, usually accompanied by a fall in the general price level.
What is depreciation/ Developed country is an economically advanced country whose economy is characterized by a large industrial and service sector and high levels of income per head.

Developing country,

 less developed country, underdeveloped country or third world country: a country characterized by low levels of GDP and per capita income; typically dominated by agriculture and mineral products and majority of the population lives near subsistence levels.
Dumping occurs when goods are exported at a price less than their normal value, generally meaning they are exported for less than they are sold in the domestic market or third country markets, or at less than production cost.

Direct investment: 

Foreign capital inflow in the form of investment by foreign-based companies into domestic based companies. Portfolio investment is foreign capital inflow by foreign investors into shares and financial securities. It is the ownership and management of production and/or marketing facilities in a foreign country.

Direct tax: 

A tax that you pay directly, as opposed to indirect taxes, such as tariffs and business taxes. The income tax is a direct tax, as are property taxes. See also Indirect Tax.

Double taxation: 

Corporate earnings taxed at both the corporate level and again as a stockholder dividend
Economic growth: Quantitative measure of the change in size/volume of economic activity, usually calculated in terms of gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product(GDP).

Duopoly: 

A market structure in which two producers of a commodity compete with each other.

Econometrics: 


The application of statistical and mathematical methods in the field of economics to test and quantify economic theories and the solutions to economic problems.

Economic development:

The process of improving the quality of human life through increasing per capita income, reducing poverty, and enhancing individual economic opportunities. It is also sometimes defined to include better education, improved health and nutrition, conservation of natural resources, a cleaner environment, and a richer cultural life.

Economic growth: 

An increase in the nation's capacity to produce goods and services.

Economic infrastructure:

The underlying amount of physical and financial capital embodied in roads, railways, waterways, airways, and other forms of transportation and communication plus water supplies, financial institutions, electricity, and public services such as health and education. The level of infrastructural development in a country is a crucial factor determining the pace and diversity of economic development.

Economic integration:

The merging to various degrees of the economies and economic policies of two or more countries in a given region. See also common market, customs union, free-trade area, trade creation, and trade diversion.

Economic policy:

A statement of objectives and the methods of achieving these objectives (policy instruments) by government, political party, business concern, etc. Some examples of government economic objectives are maintaining full employment, achieving a high rate of economic growth, reducing income inequalities and regional development inequalities, and maintaining price stability. Policy instruments include fiscal policy, monetary and financial policy, and legislative controls (e.g., price and wage control, rent control).
Economies of Scale.

Elasticity of demand: 

The degree to which consumer demand for a product or service responds to a change in price, wage or other independent variable. When there is no perceptible response, demand is said to be inelastic.

Excess capacity: 

Volume or capacity over and above that which is needed to meet peak planned or expected demand.

Excess demand: 

the situation in which the quantity demanded at a given price exceeds the quantity supplied. Opposite: excess supply

Exchange control:

A governmental policy designed to restrict the outflow of domestic currency and prevent a worsened balance of payments position by controlling the amount of foreign exchange that can be obtained or held by domestic citizens. Often results from overvalued exchange rates


Exchange rate: 

The price of one currency stated in terms of another currency, when exchanged.

Export incentives:

Public subsidies, tax rebates, and other kinds of financial and nonfinancial measures designed to promote a greater level of economic activity in export industries.


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